Final Report: Project 3.5
Principal Investigator: Patricia Gándara, UC Davis
Project Period: July 1997 to June 2001
Purpose of the Research: Peer groups play an important role in
the academic achievement of adolescents. They form a critical part of
the environment of schools, and they create and maintain a culture separate
from the home and adult community in which adolescents are raised. Many
young people spend more time with peers than with parents or other family
members. Peers can exert extraordinary influence over each other, including
the formation and support of personal goals and academic aspirations.
Although we know that there are vast differences among ethnic groups with
respect to academic aspirations, attitudes toward school, and preparation
for post-secondary education, the great bulk of the research on peer influence
and academic aspirations is based on homogeneous groups of white, middle
class youth. Even where studies have included diverse populations, they
often fail to do analyses by ethnicity, gender, and age. Moreover, the
small body of research that describes the aspirations of ethnically diverse
youth is based almost exclusively on surveys that capture point-in-time
This study examines how adolescents from different ethnic groups form
their expectations about schooling and their post-secondary aspirations
during the four years of high school, with a focus on how peers and families
help to shape these attitudes and aspirations. It looks at students from
both urban and rural contexts, and it uses ethnographic, survey, and interview/focus
group data to provide a textured picture of the development of post-secondary
aspirations of African American, Southeast Asian, Latino, and European
American youth over time. We look at the differences among groups by age,
gender, and urbanicity, and we find that there are important and interesting
differences among these groups about which education policy makers should
be acutely aware if they hope to create interventions that may help these
students to be more successful in school.
This study follows the class of 2001 from the time the students began
high school in 1997 until the class graduated in 2001 in two large schools
--an urban school located in Sacramento, California, and a rural school
located in Dixon, California. While these schools are only about one half
hour in driving distance apart, they quite literally exist in two separate
worlds. The urban school has about 2,000 students, with an almost equal
balance of European American, Latino, SE Asian, and African American students.
It struggles with all of the typical problems of a low income, inner city
high school-- transient students, faculty, and staff, inadequate facilities
and materials, many alienated youth, and families with inadequate resources
to help prepare them for postsecondary education and careers. Drugs, alcohol
consumption, and violence are chronic issues at the school. The rural
school, with about 1100 students of whom approximately 60 percent are
European American and 40 percent are Latino, looks like a place out of
the 1950s. The campus is clean, quiet, and orderly. There are few serious
behavior problems at the school and the faculty turnover is about half
of what it is at the urban school. But, these appearances obscure some
very difficult issues beneath the surface, and the lives and futures of
the students differ markedly by ethnicity and gender.
Data Collection Methods
The research team
An important aspect of the data collection methods is that they are woven
into an ongoing relationship with the schools. The team of researchers
complement and nurture each other. The data collection team is as follows:
2 Graduate Student Researchers: One Latina, One African American
4- 6 Undergraduate Research Assistants, Diverse, representing students
in the schools
12 High School Student Coordinators: Diverse, representing students in
The diversity of the research team, and their increasing closeness to
the age and experience of the high school students, as one moves down
the structure of the team, is a unique asset to the study. It has provided
access and insights into student experiences that would not have been
available otherwise. The graduate student researchers oversee the data
collection, the undergraduate researchers help conduct the data collection,
and the high school students coordinate activities at the schools sites
and encourage the participation of students. All meet on a regular basis
to review and analyze data, each contributing his or her particular perspective
Both quantitative and qualitative data inform this study, and data collection
has been intensive. In the first year of the study, we spent at least
one per week observing at the schools, in the classrooms, in the offices,
on the campus, and interviewing all of the key staff members to gain a
picture of the school, how it operated, how students grouped themselves,
what was important to them. We were able to build ethnographic profiles
of the schools on the basis of these observations and interviews. We also
collected annual "report card" data on the schools.
An annual survey was administered at the beginning of each school year
to all members of the class of 2001 in both schools that covers a set
of questions that for which we have sought markers over time, and which
is augmented and adapted each year to reflect the new stage of the students.
For example, as students moved into the age of driving and working, new
questions were added to tap students' experiences with these issues. Also,
analysis of data and ongoing attention to the literature has resulted
in the addition and modification of some items over time.
Students were administered, anonymously and voluntarily, the annual survey
in their English classes. Because the coordination for this effort was
intensive, and because teachers were reluctant to relinquish their teaching
time, we were only able to survey in each class once. Students who were
absent on those days were not surveyed.
After survey data were analyzed, the team decided which questions arose
out of the survey data that can be illuminated in focus group format.
For example, we wanted to know why Latinas and Asian females expressed
concern about a lot of pressure to engage in sex, but African American
girls did not. We wondered why Latino and African American males reported
such good relationships with their parents, but also had the worst school
records of all groups. Focus groups allowed us to explore these issues
with students and make sense of the survey data.
A subsample of 120 students (80 from the urban school and 40 from the
rural school) were selected on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and achievement
level to provide us with an intensive sample that we could monitor closely
over the four years. These students comprised the focus groups, and we
collected grade data and exit survey data for them as well.
Focus group sessions were scheduled 3 or 4 times each year. Students
were invited to come to lunch (pizza and sodas provided) and meet with
a graduate student and undergraduate student group leader, usually who
represented both the gender and ethnicity of the group. (Groups were divided
by gender and ethnicity because of our experience with students being
more frank in such settings.) Sessions were taped and transcribed.
We interviewed the parents of the focus group sample twice during the
study by telephone --once at mid-study and once at the end, to gain their
perspectives on parenting adolescents and preparing them for postsecondary
opportunities. This was the most difficult data to collect and students
from the same language groups as the parents did the interviews. It took
several months to complete this data collection each time. This provided
parental perspectives from the four different ethnic groups.
Data were collected from all teachers in the schools on their homework
practices and views of the students' work efforts.
An important aspect of the study was our commitment to share information
with parents and schools by conducting workshops for both parents and
faculty on attitudes, values, and aspirations of diverse youth. We offered
these in both English and Spanish, and we also used these workshops as
opportunities to get feedback from faculty and parents about our emerging
findings. This provided a source of triangulation for our research efforts.
Instruments developed for this study included (and are attached):
- annual surveys
- parent interview protocols
- teacher survey protocols
- 12th grade exit survey
The sample in the first year consisted of 473 students from the four
ethnic groups; 207 European American students, 94 from the urban school,
and 113 from the rural school; 112 Latino students, 67 from the urban
school and 45 from the rural school; 70 African Americans, all from the
urban school, and 84 Southeast Asian students, all from the urban school.
52% of the sample was female.
Because of student attrition, the 12th grade sample consisted
of 287 students, an attrition of about 40%, which is fairly typical for
diverse, low income schools in California. The 12 grade sample consisted
of 137 European American students, 50 urban and 87 rural; 82 Latino students,
39 urban, 43 rural; 30 urban African Americans, and 38 urban SE Asians.
51% of the 12th grade sample was female.
The focus groups sample began with 120 and ended with 93. Some students
were replaced up to the 11th grade in order to keep the sample
Unique Features of the Study
We think it is important to call attention to a couple features of this
study that were unique and yielded collateral benefits that are normally
not found in research studies in education. First, our team of researchers
was composed of multi-layers of personnel from faculty to high school
students. There were particular benefits to the undergraduate and high
school students that we do not think are common. Each year we selected
a group of 4 - 6 diverse undergraduates to work on the project (in some
cases, we were able to hold onto students for more than one year, and
in one case, a student went away to study abroad, and came back and rejoined
us.) We have maintained strong relationships with many of these students
and continued to advise them as they continued their studies into graduate
and credential programs. Several students told us that they decided to
become teachers as a result of their work on the project. At least four
of our students have gone on to teaching or counseling credential programs.
Others have gone on to graduate school. Since these students are very
diverse--about 75% are Latino, African American or Southeast Asian--we
think the project has made an important contribution to the local graduate
school and teacher credential pipeline. And, we have been able to provide
ongoing guidance for these students. The inclusion of high school students
also provided important leadership opportunities for these students that
led to a greater interest in higher education.
The second unique feature was the inclusion of parent and faculty workshops
in the design of the study, and in campus visits for the students in the
intensive sample. We held several of these at the schools, and at retreats
held by the schools. They were extremely well-received, and on the evaluation
form that teachers were asked to fill out after their mountain retreat,
they marked our workshop as the most useful and interesting of the events
that were planned. Parents became very engaged in the material that we
presented, and were helpful to us in sorting out the information we had
gathered on students. These workshops with parents were wonderful opportunities
for us to get important perspectives that would otherwise be missing from
the research. Finally, students were brought from the high school campuses
to spend a day at the college campus and discussion groups and opportunities
to attend some classes were provided to help motivate and orient them
to college lifestyle.
Findings and Implications
The study began with four major questions, which were refined and modified
as the study evolved. These were:
- Across ethnic groups, what factors influence the formation and change
of friendship groups?
- Across ethnic groups, in what ways do peers influence, support,
or undermine academic goals of their friends?
- What determines the relative influence of multiple friendship groups?
- Across ethnic groups, how do school and community context and family
background mediate the influence of peers, and vice versa?
As the study has developed, we have refined our questions and shifted
to reflect the reality of what we are finding in the schools and the
limitations of our data. Below, I answer the initial questions that we
posed, but many of the more interesting findings evolved from questions
we pursued outside of the initial areas of inquiry, and these are discussed
briefly at the end of this section, but are covered in greater depth in
the attached published papers, and in papers that are now in development.
1) "What factors affect the formation and change of friendship groups?"
The first question we posed"What factors affect the formation and
change of friendship groups?"was explored from a number of perspectives,
including the role of musical tastes in choosing friends, and the role
of school cliques in this process. Our data suggest that students gravitate
towards others who they perceive to share similar tastes and dispositions
to school and social life, but they do not so much select their friendship
groups as make themselves available for selection by signaling their interests
through dress, music, extracurricular activities, ethnic affiliation,
and overtly expressed attitudes toward school and school activities.
We found that friendship groups responded to developmental trends and
reflected the ethnicity of the students. All groups tend to choose their
friends from among their own ethnic group, and this is fairly stable over
time, although European Americans are the most likely to report that they
choose friends from outside their own group. In the early years of high
school friendship groups did not change very much, and students tended
to remain with friends they had made before coming to high school. As
their high school careers progressed, friendship groups tended to become
larger, and individual friendships somewhat less intense, admitting a
larger group of students. Changes that did occur tended be the result
of students finding they were going in different directions --most typically,
those students who decided they wanted to do well in school tended to
shed relationships that they perceived were holding them back. Asian students
demonstrated the least change in friendship groups and were more likely
than other students to maintain strong bonds with the same students over
time. Curriculum tracking certainly played a role in friendship group
formation, as did issues of language. For example, the rural school was
much more strictly tracked, with many Latino students being placed in
vocational and general education or ESL tracks where they spent most of
their days with only Latino students. Thus, it was not surprising that
friendships groups tended to even more ethnically segregated in this school
than in the urban school where there was somewhat less tracking, and more
2) Across ethnic groups, in what ways do peers influence, support,
or undermine academic goals of friends? We were somewhat surprised
to find that very few students admit to talking about future plans or
even very much school-related information with friends. We thought this
would change once students were in the 12th grade and high
school graduation was imminent, but it did not. Most students claimed
to be vaguely aware of their friends' post high school plans, but up till
Spring of 2001, a great deal of time was not dedicated to this discussion
within most friendship groups. Higher achieving students, and Asians,
were much more likely to discuss these matters with friends. Conversation
among friends usually does not center around school or how one does in
school. Students know how their friends are doing through casual references
and general information, but rarely broach the topic of achievement or
future plans up to this point.
Students do mention the pep talks they give to friends who may be running
the risk of drop out or failure, and confide that when they are performing
poorly, they usually have a friend who will caution them as well. However,
students tend to have close friends who perform very similarly to them,
and so it is difficult for most friends to counsel against what they are
doing. Students do not admit to overt messages from others to not perform
well in school. Those few students in the sample who are high performers
tend to be less connected to the informal social life of the school and
have very highly scheduled time in order to get high grades. Very few
Latino or African American students in either of these schools are high
achievers and they maintain a certain independence from most other
The impact of peers on school achievement appears to occur via the culture
of the individual groups, most of which do not place schooling at the
center, and through the normative or reference groups by which students
measure themselves. We go into much more detailed discussion of this in
our paper, The Changing Shape of Aspirations . Most students
group cultures are composed of features that have little to do with schooling
hanging out, sports, music. Students have a generalized perception
of what their friends values are and they peg their own performance
accordingly. Since most of the students in these two schools are not high
achievers, their own moderate to low achievement is seen as standard for
their context. Unfortunately, their achievement behaviors do not match
their developing aspirations. Interestingly, Asian students perceived
their friends as being concerned with doing well in school and wanting
to sustain this image, although they claimed to not want their friends
to think of them as being a good student themselves!
3) What determines the relative importance of multiple peer groups?
This is a question that did not have much of an answer until the 12th
grade data came in and then it provided us with powerful insights into
the role of peers. As we began to study our data, we found that students
had multiple peer groups both inside and outside of school. These were
comprised of close friends, cliques, crowds, and reference groups. Students
began to expand both the size and number of groups to which they belonged
as they traveled through high school. The importance of these groups as
influences on students' behavior also appeared to shift from close friends
to the broader normative group as students got older and increased their
experiences. Development appears to play a pivotal role in the importance
of different peer groups, as well as new experiences, and to some extent
ethnicity. Latinos were less likely to report the shift to the normative
peer group, and rural students were more likely to report influence from
the reference group than were urban students. European Americans were
much more likely to report that they were influenced by the media --especially
viewing other kids like themselves--than was any other ethnic group.
4) How do school and community context and family background mediate
the influence of peers, and vice versa? Our findings here are lengthy
and quite developmental in nature.
- For all groups, grades go down as aspirations go up. From 8th
through the 12th grade, students' grades continued to fall
even taking into consideration that many of the most at risk
students dropped outwhile their aspirations for postsecondary
schooling have continued to rise. There is a clear mismatch in these
trends, as students seem to believe that the time ahead, during which
they may recover their grades, is limitless. Of course, 12th grade
brings a readjustment in aspirations as students have to face the
fact that 4 year college may be out of their reach if their grades
are very low.
- A high percentage of rural Latinas in the first year of high school
could not say what they intended to do upon completing high school.
This is particularly worrisome because of high rate of drop out for
Latinos in early grades, and low achievement outcomes. This changes
over time for those who remain in school. Being in school does seem
to have an impact on raising aspirations for these young women. However,
Latinos in particular appear to lose confidence in the 11th
grade, as they see what will be expected to go to college and they
weigh their financial resources. At this point more than one-fourth
of Latino students again contend that they do not know what they will
do when they finish high school. These aspirations begin to recover
in the 12th grade as they figure out they can still go
to college, but not to a four year college.
- Students are most vulnerable to peer opinion in the early years of
high school, particularly with respect to the pressures they feel to
engage in certain behaviors, or wear particular clothes in order to
fit in. Students tell us that at the beginning of high school they did
things they would not have done at later ages because of a desire to
"fit in." Pressure to engage in risky behaviors tends to decline
over the course of high school. As they get older, they become more
autonomous and less likely to bend to peer pressures, but this does
not mean that they necessarily are less influenced by peers. We believe
that nature of influence changes such that the broader normative group
--kids who represent the kind of person they want to be, kids they see
represented in the media-- take on greater importance as models.
- Students, especially white girls, begin to show an increasing reliance
on parents and family members in shaping their postsecondary aspirations
as the years progress. By the 12th grade, students report
relying more on their parents for support and counsel, but many Asian
and Latino students do not go to them for advice because their parents
are unable to help them prepare for college.
- Asian females have the most tense relations with parents. There is
considerable conflict with parents about behavioral issues as these
more traditional largely immigrantparents place strict rules
on the girls (more so than on the boys) and these girls say that they
have little communication with their parents. On the other hand, they
also are the highest academic performers of all groups
- African American and Latino boys in the early grades of high school
are the most likely to contend that they have very strong relationships
with their parents, even though they are the least likely to be doing
well in school. Latino boys, in particular, are least likely to consult
parents about postsecondary decisions. Thus, there is an interesting
paradox that the students with the worst parental relationships are
the most likely to do well academically, while those with the best relationships
are at the greatest risk in the early grades. As they get older, their
relations with parents begin to look more like those of other groups,
although the pressure to engage in risky behavior, and the continuing
decline in grades does not abate.
- Asian girls are more restricted in their out-of-school behavior, and
both Asian and Latina girls report feeling more restricted by their
families and community with respect to adhering to acceptable behavioral
codes, e.g., not engaging in premarital sex.
- White and Asian girls have the highest aspirations and the highest
grades. Boys across all ethnic groups tend to be at higher risk for
school problems and limited postsecondary opportunity. Boys do considerably
less homework than girls which gets reflected in their grades.
- Across all ethnic groups, females are more likely to rely on parents
for advice about postsecondary plans than are males.
Urban rural trends
- Rural students have significantly less satisfactory relationships
with parents and are less likely than urban students to spend time with
family than with friends. This would suggest that urban parents and
family have greater opportunity to mediate the thinking and attitudes
of students. However, urban students do not report relying on parents
and family members for help in thinking about future plans to any greater
degree than do the rural students. In fact, rural students report that
parents influence their postsecondary decisions more than urban students.
Thus the effects of this greater amount of interaction may not directly
bear on the process of this decisionmaking. The effects, may however,
be indirect in controlling students exposure to other influences
(both good and bad).
- Rural students are more likely to aspire to a trade than to college;
overall aspirations are lower than for urban students. Rural students
as a group appear to be exposed to fewer postsecondary options than
the urban students, even though they reside in a community not more
than 20 minutes from a medium sized city. The daily lives of the rural
students are significantly different from their urban peers. .
- Rural white girls appear to be more protected by the environment than
others by 11th grade they see parents as more influential
than urban white girls and they are more likely to be influenced by
teachers. This suggests that as they mature, the context may provide
more of a protective cocoon.
- Urban students as whole report that grades are more important to them
than do rural students. However, rural students report spending more
time doing homework. This appears to be somewhat paradoxical.
- Urban males and rural females report that grades are important to
their friends, significantly more than do rural males or urban females.
Thus, the potential influence of peers on attitudes toward achievement
would appear to differ by community context.
- Across all ethnic groups, Black students and Asian females have the
highest aspirations. In the 12th grade, 77% of African American
males contend they are going to a four year college, although their
grade point averages are below a 2.0. We believe that Black students
do not really believe they are going to college, but are apt to "play
the game" and tell adults what they want to hear "to get them off their
backs." Black students are very reluctant to share their actual feelings
or beliefs with researchers. We are developing a paper on this topic
that mines our data in this regard. Latinos, both male and female, have
the lowest aspirations for postsecondary schooling.
- White and Black students are most likely to consult with parents about
future plans; Latinos and Asian are least likely to consult with parents.
This is clearly related to immigrant status and perception that parents
do not know much about the opportunities that exist in the US.
- As might be expected, students who profess to want to go to college
demonstrate much more pressure about getting good grades than students
with aspirations to work after high school. School achievement is not
seen as a prerequisite to getting a good job after high school.
- Because SE Asian and Latino parents are not able to provide a great
deal of advice to their children about how to prepare for postsecondary
opportunities, these students, in particular, are highly dependent on
others in their environment to provide this information. Few of these
students ever consult a counselor, although a number of Latino students,
in particular, cited the role of teachers in advising and encouraging
them. However, Asian students have peers who are college-oriented and
who share information and encouragement. Latinos do not. In the absence
of any systematic (while some teachers may be encouraging, students
often do not maintain regular contact with the same teachers over time)
support from important people in their lives, Latino students fail to
develop strong postsecondary education aspirations.
Implications of the Research
There are several major implications of this research that contradict
the existing literature:
- A substantial literature concludes that authoritative parenting, good
communication, and "family connectedness" ( Resnick, et al., 1997; Steinberg,
1996; Baumrind, 1989) is a good predictor of decreased risk for engaging
in risky behaviors by adolescents. Our data suggest that this probably
differs markedly by group, and that Latinos and African American males,
in particular, may maintain strong family connectedness while also engaging
in risky behavior. Our data suggest that family and neighborhood resources
may also be required as part of the equation.
- A substantial research has concluded that peer influence peaks around
age 14 and then subsides in strength thereafter. Our data suggest that
the influence of close friends in cliques, and "crowds" (the larger
friendship group that comprises the broader social circle of a student)
may well diminish over time, and the intense pressure to engage in risky
behavior may be reduced, but that peer pressure may continue at a high
level, albeit in a different form --that of the broader reference group
of peers --those individuals with whom a student may never even interact,
but who represent a kind of person they aspire to be, or think they
are. The reference group may continue to exert a great deal of influence
on students, which is the reason that creating a culture of high expectations
in schools continues to be an important goal even for 12th
- There is an emerging literature (cite) that suggests that the fear
of appearing to "act white" may be overstated and that African American
students, indeed, have high aspirations for school achievement and do
not actively resist the idea of being a good student. Our data suggest
that African American students, in particular, are disingenuous in their
responses to these kinds of attitude surveys and that theory should
not be built on these data. Ethnographic and interview data are far
better sources of information on African American students than survey
- Overall, students' educational aspirations increase each year that
they are in school, and their school achievement declines each year
they are in school. This is a poor match. But, there are variations
in these patterns, and Latinos, in particular, depart from these linear
trends in interesting ways. Our data suggest that data must be disaggregated
by ethnicity to understand the aspirations and achievement of students
in diverse schools.
- Our data showed that in some cases urbanicity --whether students attended
rural or urban schools (and lived in these communities)-- was more salient
than ethnicity in describing aspirations and development. For example,
Latino students in rural schools reported different types of pressures
than those in urban schools, and rural students overall were less likely
to aspire to post-secondary education that urban students, even controlling
for ethnicity. Violence is a risk factor in urban environments, ignorance
of opportunity is a risk factor in rural environments. Schools need
to address these particular risks in their communities.
- Peer group influences, parenting practices, and parental resources
all interact to create supportive or non-supportive environments for
adolescents. It is not sufficient to teach parents "parenting skills"
if these are not also supported by resources that allow them to exercise
appropriate options to combat negative peer influences and support more
positive peer influences.
Key Products (attached in Appendix)
- Cooper, C. & Gándara P., When Diversity Works: Bridging
Families, Peers, Schools, and Communities at CREDE. Special issue of
Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk. Volume 6, Nos.
1 and 2, 2001.
- Gándara, P., Gutiérrez, D., and O'Hara, S. (2001). Planning
for the future in rural and urban schools, Journal of Education for
Students Placed at Risk. Volume 6, Nos. 1 and 2, 2001.
- Gibson, M. & Gándara, P. (Eds.) Peer influences on the
school performance of Mexican-descent adolescents. Invitational Conference
(and book project), Hayes Mansion, September 14 - 16, 2001. (The book
will include chapters from two CREDE projects)
- Gándara, P., Gutiérrez, D., William-White, L., &
O'Hara, S. (in press), The changing shape of aspirations: Mexican American
students and the influence of peers, family, and school on future plans.
In Gibson, M. & Gándara, P. (Eds.) Peer Influences on
the School Performance of Mexican-descent Adolescents. New York:
Teachers College Press. Pending.
- Gándara, P. [There was a Talking Leaves publication that came
out on this project but I do not recall ever getting a copy. Could someone
send that; I think it would be appropriate to list it here.]
- William-White, L., & Gándara, P. (in preparation). Saving
face: Academic achievement and African American high school students.